The Ph.D. course in Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering is a part of the Ph.D. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture. The Ph.D. course consists of two curricula: one in Environmental Engineering and one in Hydraulic Engineering.
The aim of the Ph.D. course in Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering is the education of high-level professional profiles and researchers, which are able to understand natural phenomena and, by using numerical model, to extract original qualitative representations aimed to evaluate the environmental and territorial impacts and to design the engineering tweaks in the context of the Civil, Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering. The aim of the Ph.D. course is to integrate the skills and the approaches of different subjects in an attempt to get a complete comprehension and quality representation of the phenomena related to the Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering, in order to control and design appropriate and innovative system of management, control, operation and recovery.
Hydraulic engineering in Rome has a long historical tradition. Main objectives of the research in this field have been:
-design of aqueducts and sewage systems;
-prediction of extreme events (e.g. related to Tevere River flood)
-rational use of landscapes (e.g. drainage and reclamation).
Theoretical and experimental findings in hydraulics in the last two centuries, have allowed to revisit design criteria and to apply fluid mechanics in several fields different from civil engineering. In this sense, hydrology, turbulence, wave propagation, dispersion processes and biological flows are fields in which the national and international researches are is focused.
In the curriculum in Hydraulic Engineering, the main research themes are: hydraulic structures; hydrology; fluid mechanics; dynamic of turbulence; numerical hydraulic; maritime hydraulic; defense of the coastline; integration of the motion equations in contravariant form; simulation of the free-surface flows in presence of shock; two-phase flows; turbidity currents; vital outflow of the river; dynamic of the large fluid bodies; twodimensional and three-dimensional turbulence; remote sensing; iperspectral analysis of land; optical methods for the relief of the fluid velocity and density; instability in fluid mechanics; bio-engineering; arteriovenous circulation; atmospheric boundary layer; dispersion of pollutants; laboratory simulation of fluids in a rotating frame; land and sea breezes, winds coming from slope and heat islands; pours media; hydrogeology.
Together with Hydraulic and Hydraulic structures, the other field of interest of the Ph.D. course is related to all the problems regarding the control, application and management of the environmental resources and regarding the development of technology and innovative processes aimed to the optimal design of the territorial tweaks which are environmentally compatible. In particular, the phenomena of the pollution diffusion in different environmental sectors are studied by models and experimental activities; the type tweaks or the structure, built in order to contain or limited the propagation of the pollution phenomenon, are also studied and researched.
In the curriculum in Environmental Engineering, the main research themes are: remediation of contaminated sites; mechanical characterization of the solid waste; hydrological and slope instability; planning, forecast and management of the flood events; planning, forecast and management of the atmospheric pollution; recovery, reuse and recycling of waste materials; naturalistic engineering technique; wastewater treatment and reuse; drinking water treatment; treatment and disposal of solid wastes; water pollution control.
The Ph.D. course lasts three years, the program activities are organized into two phases:
-the first year is mainly devoted to acquire theoretical basis and knowledge of methodologies by courses, seminars and conferences. A specific research topic is also selected and a supervisor, selected from Members of Academic Board, is assigned to the Ph.D. student, in order to follow him/her. The transition to the second year is made by a verification of the activities done.
-the second and third years are devoted to the development of the specific research project, supervised by the supervisor.
Ph.D. thesis are based on numerical and/or experimental activity. In the former case, the supervisor provides suitable computing resources. The experimental thesis can be carried out either in the Hydraulic Laboratory, in Hydraulic Structures Laboratory or in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory, both belonging to the Department of Civil, Building and Environmental Engineering.
The technical-scientific competences of these Laboratories are well documented by the large number of papers published in the best national and international journals and by participation of the authors to scientific conferences, presenting the results of the activities here conducted. The Laboratories are also involved in a number of contracts funded by the European Community or by private or public companies or institutions.
The expertise acquired by the Ph.D. in Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering, beside of being fundamental for the Italian University institution, as demonstrated by the increasing of the international bibliography related to these studies, is also of key relevance to provide support to different Authorities, such as Protezione Civile, Autorità di Bacino, Servizi Provinciali di Difesa del Suolo, Agenzie Nazionale e Regionali per la Protezione dell'Ambiente (APAT, ARPA), Servizi Tecnici dello Stato, Aziende di gestione delle risorse idriche, energetiche o dei rifiuti, Enti di ricerca, and many others, in either the planning activities or the management of the most critical situations and contexts.
In many disciplinary sectors, like, for example, river and coastal hydraulics, hydrology, geotechnics, geophysics, sanitary and environmental engineering and ecology, the physical and mathematical modelling, in the last decades, has undergone a significant development under the combined pressure of the availability of new instruments and techniques for the acquisition of environmental data and new specific needs, like climatological forecasting, the study of the mechanism that control catastrophic events (as flooding, landslides or volcanic eruptions), protection of groundwater and surface water against environmental pollution, recycling of waste material and, more generally, the environmental protection. However, the construction of physical and mathematical models that are representative of physical, biological, chemical and ecological phenomena and processes, which goes hand in hand with the availability of computational methods and geo-referenced representing tools, requires a multidisciplinary teaching approach which is essential to understand the complexity of natural phenomena. The integration of expertise of different scientific disciplines makes it possible to face problems related to the interaction between the man and the environment in an articulated and exhaustive way. A better understanding of complex environmental systems is the indispensable basis for an evaluation of the risk associated with the processes that characterize the systems and for the consequent decision of intervening. The applicative aspect of the PhD course is fully expressed in the adaptation of the design methodology and execution processes to the modern requirements of environmental protection and conservation of renewable and non-renewable resources. The cultural background acquired during the PhD course is aimed at the design of actions on the territory which guarantee a positive environmental balance and contribute to a real redevelopment of the man-made environment.
The present Ph.D. course differs from the other Doctorate programs of the environmental sector because moves from the pure research on the single phenomena towards a quantitative approach of the complex environmental systems, integrating the following activities:
-analysis and study of the natural phenomena whit particular attention to the intensity and return period of the catastrophic events;
-implementation of physico-mathematical models representing the natural phenomena;
-development of tools for model solving and application.
Experimental data and field measurements allow to establish limit conditions and to verify and validate the models.
The Department of Civil Building and Environmental Engineering which the present Ph.D. belongs to have all the expertise and skills required to ensure the best development of the proposed Ph.D. curricula; it also possesses the experimental and numerical tools and equipment needed to achieve the above mentioned goals fixed by the Ph.D. in Environmental and Hydraulic Engineering.