Annual report

32° Cycle
VERDE DANIELE: (I trimester) Development of a hydraulic model pressure driven for a water network by using Todini Pilati algorithm (Newton Rapson). This model makes the modelling much more realistic because it is possible to use unlimited number of loss coefficients. By this way it is possible to have a more realistic spatial and temporal distribution of loss. Tutor meting for 40 hours. (II trimester) Refinement of a calibration procedure for a water network model that is able to give an estimate of the physical parameters (roughness, loss coefficients) and also a measure of the uncertainties associated to these estimated parameters. The procedure has been implemented by using the optimization algorithm Bayesian SCEM-UA (coupled with a model for simulation of water network) that takes into account the unknown parameters as random variables. Videocall with tutor for 10 hours. (III trimester) Planning and implementation of the division of the water network for Norma and Gaeta (LT), managed by Acqualatina S.p.A. Realization of a network for monitoring, by using electromagnetic flow meters, and acquisition of the measures on SCADA. Videocall with tutor for 10 hours. (IV trimester) Design and planning of a measurement campaigns on the water network of Norma, in order to calibrate the hydraulic model for the water network, that includes the installation of 3 flow meters clamp on (for 15 days) and 15 pressure transducers (measures that should be integrated with SCADA measures). Tutor meting for 22 hours.

33° Cycle
BERTINI CLAUDIA: (I trimester) Optimization of the rainfall network by the use of the Information Theory and satellite data in the Rio das Velhas bacin (Brasil). The aim of this study was to realize a monitoring network of the optimal rainfall, related to the given informations, by using the observation of CMORPH to identify the more interesting positions in the basin. (II trimester) Optimization of the rainfall network by the use of the Information Theory and satellite data in Upper-Middle zone of the Tevere river. Verification of the optimal networks defined by the performance of rainfall-runoff model. The aim of this studies was to estimate replicability of the method previously used in small basin and in basin with different climate from the one in Rio das Velhas. (III trimester) Comparison with the satellite and pluviometric data in order to evaluate intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves in ungauged areas and the design discharge. The aim of this research was to evaluate the errors produced by using the rainfall satellite observations for measure rainfall intensity and design discharge. Evaluation of the rainfall satellite observations to measure the rainfall extreme events in order to use the rainfall-runoff models. Writing of the PhD thesis.

CONIGLIARO ELENA: (I trimester) Realization of a three-dimensional model for the Urban Canopy for the surface energy budget and its integration in a Mesoscale Meteorological Model (the CSUMM Model – Colorado State University Meteorological Model). This three-dimensional model has been formulated starting from the two-dimensional approach, that uses a two-dimensional street canyon infinitely long and homogeneous in terms of geometric and temperature properties. The new three-dimensional model is able to consider (instead of the two-dimensional model) every single building (finite element) belonging to the city taken into account, in the calculation of energy fluxes between the surfaces. Every single building is taken into account with each morphological and radioactive properties. (II trimester) The new model has been used for simulating the energy budget for the city if Rome. Fist of all it has been important determine the morphologic of the buildings in Rome. GIS and a shape database have been used. Through the software QGis, the location (geographical coordinates), the geometry (dimension, perimeter, area, height) and the material characteristics are defined for each building in Rome. (III trimester) Analysis of the results obtained in different zone of Rome in terms of the soil temperature. The three-dimensional model gives huge advantages (with respect to the two-dimensional model) to reproduce the soil different temperatures that exist in the urban areas. These different temperatures are linked to the different uses of the soil and to the different morphology of the zone in the city. Through comparative analysis the influence of several parameters (building height, horizontal coverage index, density, albedo, construction material heat capacity, …) has been evaluated on the Urban Heat Island phenomenon (UHI). (IV trimester) The results are published on a paper, because they are satisfying. Writing of the PhD thesis.

DE BONIS TRAPELLA ALESSADRO: (I trimester) The research activity, conducted in the first trimester, was focused on the preparation to study trip to the Columbia University (NY, USA). In Columbia University the PhD student worked on the realization of numerical models for projection and downscaling of the sea water level under climate change scenarios. (II trimester) The research activity was focused on the analysis and integration of the data, obtained by the projection of the sea water level by using a numerical model. (III – IV trimester) The research activity was focused on the PhD thesis and article writing, both based on the results obtained by the numerical model. Participation as a relator to the congress ClimRisk2020.
IACURTO SILVIA: (I-IV trimester) Investigations at site for: quantitative and qualitative monitoring of the Capodacqua di Spigno (Formia) spring. Elaboration of the data, bibliographic research, article and PhD thesis writing.

MARZEDDU SIMONE: (I trimester) The experimental activities were focused on the study of the arsenic remediation of contaminated water. The biochar was used as a possible sorbent for contaminant in batch and column tests. (II trimester) The data was processed and a kinematic and thermodynamic model was developed. (III trimester) The experimental activities are focused on the chemical characterization of the investigated materials. (IV trimester) Data processing for the PhD thesis writing.

VALLEROTONDA MARTINA: (I trimester) Modifications and tests on the metabolic model defined by the PhD student. Bibliographic research to define a database on experimental data that can be used for the validation of the abovementioned model. (II trimester) In the second trimester the previous research for the database was continued. Writing of the PhD thesis. (III-IV trimester) From June to now the student asked a suspension work reasons.

34° Cycle
ANDREI FRANCESCA: (I trimester) The PhD research is focused on the study of the nanoparticles in porous media, in order to evaluate their efficiency for the soil and ground water remediation (first step) and their distribution in a saturated porous media (second step). During the first trimester, the PhD research is mainly focused on the first step, batch tests has been done in order to evaluate the efficiency of the application of the nanoparticles to treat and stop the contaminant. In parallel to the laboratory experiments, bibliographic research has been done regarding the using of the nanoparticles in environmental field. (II trimester) The laboratory tests were interrupted for the sanitary emergency, the PhD student has done a bibliographic research. (IV trimester) The laboratory experiments have been resumed and the first step has been finished. The second step has been started with the aim to evaluate the distribution and the mobility of the nanoparticles in a porous media. New laboratory experiments have been started through the image analysis to study the nanoparticles in the saturated porous media. In this second step the laboratory experiments was together with numerical activities (calibrated through the experimental results) in order to create a model which is able to simulate the nanoparticles distribution.

DÉCIMA MARIA ALEJANDRA: (I trimester) It was evaluated the carbamazepine (organic micro-contaminant) removal through the absorption by using active carbonate and two different biochar. Several bacteria, that are able to grow in high concentration, have been isolated in wastewater which had high concentration of carbamazepine. (II trimester) The data of the carbamazepine absorption have been analyzed and modeled. Bibliographic research regarding the methods for measure the carbamazepine through the uHPLC-MS. (III trimester) The characterization of the absorption material activated carbon and biochar has been studied. (IV trimester) Several tests of biodegradation have been conducted by using microorganism with ability to degradation of carbamazepine.

GUERIERO ELISA: (I trimester) Beginning of the communications with RUA about remediation of the SIN Sacco. Implementation of a database on procedures for characterization and remediation that will be used in the National Basin of Sacco River. Analysis of the present and past industrial activities that are at site, upstream and downstream, by using the database. (II trimester) A GIS model was used for focusing the region; individualization of the planning tools divided in districts, Frosinone and Rome, and geological and hydrogeological focus of the region. Inspection at Ex Cartiera Vita Mayer and Ceprano for activity of waste removing. (III trimester) The urgent measures for the environmental and health have been geo-localized, these measures are financing by AdPQ. For each measure has been realized a form in which the location, the altitude of the ground, dimension, property, type of contaminant, administrative procedure (where they are required), urban destination during the construction works, are described. Inspection at Ex Olivieri Industries. (IV trimester) The riparian agricultural areas are defined in the National Basin of Sacco River. The extension of the area is 1730ha.

MOCCIA BENEDETTA: (I – II trimester) Analysis of the extreme rainfall in Italy by using satellite dataset. (III trimester) Analysis of rainfall with high intensity and short duration and their variability related to the climate change. (IV trimester) Analysis of the rainfall for each event to calibrate and test the pluviometric threshold by using the satellite dataset.

PALLESCHI FEDERICA: (I trimester) Study on hydrodynamic phenomena in the Cetrato Harbour by using a three-dimensional numerical model in which the Navier-Stokes equations are written in integral contravariant form in a curvilinear coordinate system that varies in time. Implementation of a new three-dimensional contravariant numerical model in which the boundary conditions at bottom and free-surface were modified. The boundary condition at the bottom was modified in order to give the possibility to the first calculous cell to oscillate according to the boundary layer theory during the numerical simulation, in presence of submerged breakwater. For these simulations a three-dimensional numerical model (called generalized sigma-coordinate) was used, in this model the Navier-Stokes equations are written in integral form on curvilinear coordinate system. In the abovementioned numerical model the vertical coordinate is transformed to follow the movement of the free-surface. (II trimester) Bibliographic research on k-omega turbulence model and in particular on advanced numerical scheme (Central WENO, Upwind WENO and high-order numerical scheme). (III trimester) Development on a new three-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of breaking waves in the sea in contravariant formulation, where the equations are written in a curvilinear coordinate system that varies in time. The numerical model adopts high-order reconstruction and the aim of this choice is to reduce the numerical dissipation in order to use it in an advanced k-omega numerical model . (IV trimester) Application of the three-dimensional model, developed during the third trimester, to a case study. The case study is the coastal region near the outlet of the Ex-Nuclear Power Plant of Latina.

SCIPIONE FRANCESCA: (I trimester) Propagation of a wave time series (1979 – 2017), made by the Research Group MeteOcean of DICCA (University of Genova), in correspondence of selected points on the batimetry 15.0m between Anzio and Capo Circeo, by using a numerical spectral model, MEROPE. (II trimester) Calculation of the longitudinal potential energy flux and its components (North-West and South-East) in correspondence of the previous selected points. Morphological analysis of the shoreline in 1954, 1985, 2003, 2014 and 2019, digitalized from Capo d’Anzio to Capo Circeo. (III trimester) Realization of a finite element grid for the propagation of the wave time series DICCA and definition of the wave motion characteristics when the wave breaks along the physiographic unit between Capo d’Anzio and Cape Circeo. (IV trimester) Setup of the one-line model for the analysis of long-term morphological evolution of the sandy shoreline.

ZONFA TATIANA: (I trimester) Experimental tests, at laboratory scale, aimed at studying the electrochemical conversion yield of volatile organic acids (VFAs) into H2 through different experimental set-ups in batch mode. In parallel, experimental activity was carried out on H2 fermentative production (dark fermentation) through a semi-continuous flow system at laboratory scale, aimed at assessing the effects of different combination of the two main operating parameters (hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate) on the biochemical H2 yield and the stability of fermentative reactions over time. These activities were suspended due to the sanitary emergency and the subsequent closure of the laboratories. (II trimester) Mainly theoretical research activity, which involved a thorough bibliographic study and analysis of literature data on the fermentative production of bio-H2 from organic residues, with particular interest in process optimization through the integration of electrochemical and biochemical methods. (III trimester) Bibliographic study and restart of the experimental activities concerning the fermentative production of H2 in semi-continuous mode. (IV trimester) Progress of the experimental program for the fermentative production of H2 involving analysis and elaboration of the results. In addition, the experimental activity concerning the integration of electrochemical methods for the simultaneous production of H2 and electricity continued through the optimization of the experimental system in accordance with the previous results.

35° Cycle
BARCHIESI MARGHERITA: (I trimester) Contextualization of the research topic within the existing scientific knowledge and to define the most appropriate way to carry out the research itself. Special attention has been devoted to analytical methods for the detection, quantification and characterization of microplastics in water treatment plants. (II trimester) Focus on the presence and fate of microplastics in water resources and in the systems of distribution, treatment and management of the same. Another topic covered was epidemiology applied to wastewater, with particular reference to the COVID-19 pandemic. (III trimester) Preparation for the start-up of research in the laboratory, dealing in detail with the practical and theoretical aspects required and including the training necessary for the use of the specific instrumentation chosen for the research (µ-Raman). (IV trimester) Start of the research in the laboratory, studying the optimal method for the analysis of microplastics in drinking water using µ-Raman technology.

BINOTTI GIORGIO: (I trimester) Exact definition of the project idea and bibliographic research. (II trimester) Theoretical deepening of the totality of the thematic, the aim is to pay attention the general state of the art and therefore to characterize essential and propaedeutic traits that are usefull for the research. (III trimester) Final concretization of the theoretical framework of reference complete and exhaustive, because the directions of deepening of the experimental and computational part have been indetified. (IV trimester) Deepening of the existing model, trying to identify the cases of software available for investigations that must be carried out on the basis of the chosen theme.

FALZARANO MARICA: (I – II trimester) Bibliographic research. (III trimester) Experimental set-up preparation. Characterisation tests on this material and testing of the instrument. (IV trimester) Laboratory tests and monitoring of the results; characterisation of the matrices used for the tests. Bibliographic research was continued.

GRANDONI LIVIA: (I trimester) Bibliographic research on: (i) ventilation of indoor environments and its link with outdoor weather conditions and (ii) particulate matter pollution of these environments. Analysis of the data acquired. (Quarter II) Bibliographic research on the problem of indoor ventilation and outdoor meteorological conditions. Analysis of data for knowledge of Matlab programming software, following an online course. (III trimester) Literature research focusing on the problem of the human source of particulate matter, in particular its emission during different respiratory activities and its dispersion in indoor environments with different ventilation. (IV trimester) Bibliographic research and data analysis.

IELE BENEDETTA: (I trimester) Deepening of the study started during the master thesis on the k-l turbulence model (k: turbulent kinetic energy; l: mixing length). Bibliographic study on the boundary conditions at the bottom and at the free surface within a three-dimensional shock-capturing model for the simulation of breaking waves at sea. The boundary condition at the bottom was applied to the lower face of the first calculation cell (the centre of this cell represents the bottom) which oscillates following the oscillation of the turbulent boundary layer. (II trimester) Study of the turbulent boundary layer to limit errors due to incorrect attribution of boundary conditions to the bottom. Numerical reproduction of the experimental test of Ting and Kirby (1994). The turbulence model used in the tests is the Smagorinsky model. (III trimester) Study of two-equation turbulence models of the k-eps type (k: turbulent kinetic energy; eps: turbulent kinetic energy dissipation). (IV trimester) Case study on the stretch of coastline in front of the former nuclear power plant at Latina. The model used is a three-dimensional model in which the equations of motion (Navier-Stokes) are written in contravariant integral form and solved in a system of curvilinear coordinates that vary in time.

ONORI MATTEO: (I trimester) In the first term, the tutor (Professor Valerio Baiocchi) was chosen and the research topic was outlined with him and the key points of the research activity to be carried out in the first year of the PhD were subsequently defined. (II trimester) Bibliographic research activities to support the research activity to be carried out, concerning the three-dimensional modelling of hypogeal environments by means of techniques including the use of low-cost latest-generation instrumentation. (III trimester) Bibliographic research activities. (IV trimester) The research activity concerning the three-dimensional modelling of underground environments was continued.

RANJBARZADEH RAMIN: (I trimester) Boltzmann transport equation at constant temperature for an incompressible flow. (II trimester) Numerical studies on the Lattice Boltzmann method. (III trimester) Studies on porous media and its criticalities. (IV trimester) Simulation of air inside a homogeneous porous medium.

ZAZZINI SIMONE: (I trimester) Analysis of the phenomena contributing to dispersion in the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer (OSBL): wind stress, wave motion, convection, evaluation of the main forcing of turbulence. (II trimester) Literature review of 3D Lagrangian models used to study dispersion in the sea. Research for microplastic sampling data on the water column. (III trimester) Analysis of mean velocity, temperature and salinity fields from operational oceanography models (Copernicus Database). (IV trimester) Determination of turbulence parameters: diffusivity, vertical velocity variance and integral scale.

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