GIORGIO LEODORI

Dottore di ricerca

ciclo: XXXIII



Titolo della tesi: Investigating human motor system physiology and Parkinson’s disease pathophysiology using combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography

The first part of the present thesis offers an introduction to the motor system organization, the pathophysiology of motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease, and the possibility to investigate the motor system through neuroimaging approaches such as electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The second part is composed of the experimental studies that I conducted during my Ph.D. both at the Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, USA and at the Department of Human Neuroscience at Sapienza University of Roma, Italy. The aim was to investigate motor control physiology and Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathophysiology using an integrated TMS-EEG approach. Study 1: Intracortical Inhibition and Surround Inhibition in the Motor Cortex Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and motor surround inhibition (mSI) are cortical phenomena that have been investigated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). The mSI is believed to be necessary for the execution of fine finger movements, SICI may participate in mSI genesis, and however, the mechanisms underlying both mSI and SICI are not entirely clear. We explored the cortical physiology of SICI and mSI in healthy subjects by TMS-evoked cortical potentials (TEPs). Single (sp) and paired-pulse (pp) TMS were delivered on the ADM muscle cortical hotspot while recording EEG and EMG. Three conditions were tested: spTMS and ppTMS at rest, and spTMS at the onset of an index finger movement. SICI and mSI were calculated on the ADM motor evoked potential (MEP) and two groups were defined based on the presence of mSI. Average TEPs were calculated for each condition and five regions of interest. At movement onset, we observed a widespread reduction of the inhibitory late component N100 suggesting cortical facilitation associated with motor performance. At the M1 level, SICI and mSI are associated with similar modulation of TEPs consisting of a reduction of P30 and an increase of N45 amplitude. Our findings suggest that SICI and mSI modulate cortical excitability with shared inhibitory mechanisms. Study 2: Cortical Mechanisms underlying Variability in Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation-Induced Plasticity We tested the hypothesis that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) variability depends on the ability to engage specific neurons in M1. In a sham-controlled interventional study on 31 healthy volunteers, we used concomitant transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG). We compared baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs), M1 iTBS-evoked EEG oscillations, and resting-state EEG (rsEEG) between subjects who did and did not show MEP facilitation following iTBS. We also investigated whether baseline MEP and iTBS-evoked EEG oscillations could explain inter and intraindividual variability in iTBS aftereffects. The facilitation group had smaller baseline MEPs than the no-facilitation group and showed more iTBS-evoked EEG oscillation synchronization in the alpha and beta frequency bands. Resting-state EEG power was similar between groups and iTBS had a similar non-significant effect on rsEEG in both groups. Baseline MEP amplitude and beta iTBS-evoked EEG oscillation power explained both inter and intraindividual variability in MEP modulation following iTBS. The results show that variability in iTBS-associated plasticity depends on the basal level of corticospinal excitability and on the ability of iTBS to engage M1 beta oscillations. These observations can be used to optimize iTBS investigational and therapeutic applications. Study 3: The role of the motor cortex in classic parkinsonian tremor We investigated the role of the M1 in the pathophysiology of parkinsonian tremor. We enrolled 10 PD patients with both re‐emergent and rest tremor. Tremor was assessed by spectral analysis, corticomuscular coherence and tremor‐resetting produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. We also recorded transcranial magnetic stimulation‐evoked potentials generated by motor cortex stimulation during rest tremor, tremor suppression during wrist extension, and re‐emergent tremor. Spectral analysis, corticomuscular coherence, and tremor resetting were compared between re‐emergent tremor and rest tremor. Both rest and re‐emergent tremor showed significant corticomuscular coherence and tremor resetting. The P60 component of transcranial magnetic stimulation‐evoked potentials reduced in amplitude during rest tremor suppression, recovered before re‐emergent tremor, was facilitated at re‐emergent tremor onset and returned to values similar to those of rest tremor during re‐emergent tremor. In conclusion, parkinsonian tremor is causally related to the activity of M1, which is likely a convergence node in the tremor generating cortico-subcortical network. Rest and re‐emergent tremor share common pathophysiological mechanisms in which the motor cortex plays a crucial role. Study 4: Cortical motor changes in Parkinson’s disease and the effect of dopaminergic medications Cortical motor changes are associated with PD, but their pathophysiological roles remain unknown. We investigated M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA) excitability in PD and the effect of dopaminergic medications using TMS-EEG. Fifteen PD patients and 12 healthy volunteers (HVs) participated in the study. We compared TEPs from M1 and SMA stimulation between PD patients and HVs, and in PD patients between OFF and ON medication conditions. We also recorded TEPs from the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and EEG responses evoked by sham stimulation as control conditions. We found that PD is associated with abnormalities in TEPs from all the stimulation sites, whereas EEG responses to sham stimulation were similar between PD and HVs. TEPs abnormalities in M1 and SMA were restored by dopaminergic therapy, whereas dopamine medication did not affect SPL TEPs. Finally, we found that abnormal TEPs from the most affected M1 showed inverse correlations with contralateral bradykinesia. In conclusion, our TMS-EEG study unveils specific cortical abnormalities in PD and their relation with dopaminergic degeneration. Also, we provided evidence suggesting that some cortical changes in PD may reflect compensatory mechanisms in response to an abnormal basal ganglia output.

Produzione scientifica

11573/1714573 - 2024 - Resting-state electroencephalography microstates as a marker of photosensitivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
Mazzeo, Adolfo; Cerulli Irelli, Emanuele; Leodori, Giorgio; Mancuso, Marco; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN COMMUNICATIONS ([Oxford]: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain) pp. - - issn: 2632-1297 - wos: WOS:001184785500007 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85186972566 (0)

11573/1683570 - 2023 - Frailty and relapse activity in multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal observation
Baione, Viola; Canevelli, Marco; Belvisi, Daniele; Buscarinu, Maria Chiara; Bellucci, Gianmarco; Fantozzi, Roberta; Nicoletti, Carolina Gabri; Malatuni, Giorgia; Cortese, Antonio; De Giglio, Laura; Tartaglia, Matteo; Ferrazzano, Gina; Malimpensa, Leonardo; Leodori, Giorgio; Bruno, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta; Marfia, Girolama Alessandra; Centonze, Diego; Salvetti, Marco; Conte, Antonella - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND RELATED DISORDERS (Amsterdam : Elsevier) pp. 104603- - issn: 2211-0348 - wos: WOS:000962532400001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85150898177 (1)

11573/1693894 - 2023 - Blurred lines: bilateral optic perineuritis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Bellucci, Gianmarco; De Riggi, Martina; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Suppa, Antonio; Leodori, Giorgio; Fiorelli, Marco; Fabbrini, Giovanni - 01i Case report
rivista: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES (Springer-Verlag Italia Srl:via Decembrio 28, 20137 Milan Italy:011 39 2 5425971, EMAIL: riccardi@springer.it, Fax: 011 39 2 55193360) pp. - - issn: 1590-3478 - wos: WOS:001107871400001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85178259561 (0)

11573/1689138 - 2023 - Distal Upper Limb Tremor during Walking in Parkinson's Disease
Costanzo, Matteo; Cutrona, Carolina; Leodori, Giorgio; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Fabbrini, Andrea; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo; Belvisi, Daniele - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: MOVEMENT DISORDERS CLINICAL PRACTICE (Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2014-) pp. 1198-1202 - issn: 2330-1619 - wos: WOS:001011839600001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85162654689 (0)

11573/1689139 - 2023 - Motor Cortical Correlates of Paired Associative Stimulation Induced Plasticity: A TMS-EEG Study
Costanzo, Matteo; Leodori, Giorgio; Cutrona, Carolina; Marchet, Francesco; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Mancuso, Marco; Belvisi, Daniele; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN SCIENCES (Basel: Molecular Diversity Preservation International) pp. 921- - issn: 2076-3425 - wos: WOS:001014158300001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85163714826 (0)

11573/1699126 - 2023 - Exploring the central mechanisms of botulinum toxin in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review from animal models to human evidence
Cutrona, Carolina; Marchet, Francesco; Costanzo, Matteo; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Leodori, Giorgio; Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo; Belvisi, Daniele - 01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
rivista: TOXINS (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI) pp. - - issn: 2072-6651 - wos: (0) - scopus: (0)

11573/1679647 - 2023 - Cortico-Subcortical White Matter Bundle Changes in Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm
Gianni', Costanza; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Belvisi, Daniele; Tommasin, Silvia; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Ferrazzano, Gina; Petsas, Nikolaos; Leodori, Giorgio; Fantoni, Nicoletta; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Pantano, Patrizia - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BIOMEDICINES (Basel : MDPI) pp. 753- - issn: 2227-9059 - wos: WOS:000954260200001 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85151496637 (3)

11573/1700202 - 2023 - Effective connectivity abnormalities in Lewy body disease with visual hallucinations
Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Andrea; Suppa, Antonio; Mancuso, Marco; Tikoo, Sankalp; Belvisi, Daniele; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 156-165 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:001111952700001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85176578597 (1)

11573/1683569 - 2023 - Neural bases of motor fatigue in multiple sclerosis: A multimodal approach using neuromuscular assessment and TMS-EEG
Leodori, Giorgio; Mancuso, Marco; Maccarrone, Davide; Tartaglia, Matteo; Ianniello, Antonio; Certo, Francesco; Baione, Viola; Ferrazzano, Gina; Malimpensa, Leonardo; Belvisi, Daniele; Pozzilli, Carlo; Berardelli, Alfredo; Conte, Antonella - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE (Academic Press Incorporated:6277 Sea Harbor Drive:Orlando, FL 32887:(800)543-9534, (407)345-4100, EMAIL: ap@acad.com, INTERNET: http://www.idealibrary.com, Fax: (407)352-3445) pp. 106073- - issn: 0969-9961 - wos: WOS:000956251200001 (7) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85149864810 (7)

11573/1700208 - 2023 - Postural Instability and Risk of Falls in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Treated with Deep Brain Stimulation: A Stabilometric Platform Study
Leodori, Giorgio; Santilli, Marco; Modugno, Nicola; D'avino, Michele; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Fabbrini, Andrea; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Belvisi, Daniele - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN SCIENCES (Basel: Molecular Diversity Preservation International) pp. - - issn: 2076-3425 - wos: WOS:001119212300001 (1) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85172202483 (1)

11573/1683373 - 2023 - Investigating the Effects of a Focal Muscle Vibration Protocol on Sensorimotor Integration in Healthy Subjects
Manzo, Nicoletta; Ginatempo, Francesca; Belvisi, Daniele; Arcara, Giorgio; Parrotta, Ilaria; Leodori, Giorgio; Deriu, Franca; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Conte, Antonella - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN SCIENCES (Basel: Molecular Diversity Preservation International) pp. 664- - issn: 2076-3425 - wos: WOS:000979232100001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85156187534 (0)

11573/1683330 - 2023 - Cortical mechanisms of sensory trick in cervical dystonia
Manzo, Nicoletta; Leodori, Giorgio; Ruocco, Giulia; Belvisi, Daniele; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo; Conte, Antonella - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: NEUROIMAGE. CLINICAL (Amsterdam : Elsevier) pp. 103348- - issn: 2213-1582 - wos: WOS:000976369500001 (4) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85147925419 (4)

11573/1680857 - 2023 - Neurophysiological and clinical biomarkers of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study
Tartaglia, Matteo; Canevelli, Marco; Malimpensa, Leonardo; Belvisi, Daniele; Baione, Viola; Ferrazzano, Gina; Leodori, Giorgio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Conte, Antonella - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY (Lausanne: Frontiers Research Foundation, 2010-) pp. 1138600- - issn: 1664-2295 - wos: WOS:000961553000001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85152684371 (0)

11573/1617739 - 2022 - Are Neurophysiological Biomarkers Able to Discriminate Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Subtypes?
Belvisi, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Borriello, G.; Baione, V.; Crisafulli, S. G.; Zuccoli, V.; Leodori, G.; Ianniello, A.; Pasqua, G.; Pantano, P.; Berardelli, A.; Pozzilli, C.; Conte, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BIOMEDICINES (Basel : MDPI) pp. 231- - issn: 2227-9059 - wos: WOS:000767600700001 (4) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85123628246 (4)

11573/1660554 - 2022 - The Effect of Coil Orientation on the Stimulation of the Pre-Supplementary Motor Area: A Combined TMS and EEG Study
Casula, Elias P; Leodori, Giorgio; Ibáñez, Jaime; Benussi, Alberto; Rawji, Vishal; Tremblay, Sara; Latorre, Anna; Rothwell, John C; Rocchi, Lorenzo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN SCIENCES (Basel: Molecular Diversity Preservation International) pp. 1358- - issn: 2076-3425 - wos: WOS:000872679300001 (6) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85140607210 (10)

11573/1659021 - 2022 - EEG Markers of Treatment Resistance in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: From Standard EEG Findings to Advanced Signal Analysis
Cerulli Irelli, Emanuele; Leodori, Giorgio; Morano, Alessandra; Di Bonaventura, Carlo - 01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
rivista: BIOMEDICINES (Basel : MDPI) pp. - - issn: 2227-9059 - wos: WOS:000872339700001 (5) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85140581824 (5)

11573/1660141 - 2022 - A combined panel of salivary biomarkers in de novo Parkinson's Disease
De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Belvisi, Daniele; Mancinelli, Romina; Fabbrini, Andrea; Manzo, Nicoletta; Costanzo, Matteo; Leodori, Giorgio; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Morini, Sergio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Md, - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY ([Boston] : American Neurological Association, c1977-) pp. - - issn: 1531-8249 - wos: WOS:000906409600001 (15) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85145367515 (18)

11573/1631592 - 2022 - Transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates cortical processing of somatosensory information in a frequency- and time-specific manner
Fabbrini, A.; Guerra, A.; Giangrosso, M.; Manzo, N.; Leodori, G.; Pasqualetti, P.; Conte, A.; Di Lazzaro, V.; Berardelli, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: NEUROIMAGE (Academic Press Incorporated:6277 Sea Harbor Drive:Orlando, FL 32887:(800)543-9534, (407)345-4100, EMAIL: ap@acad.com, INTERNET: http://www.idealibrary.com, Fax: (407)352-3445) pp. 119119- - issn: 1053-8119 - wos: WOS:000806921500006 (8) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85127472722 (8)

11573/1660642 - 2022 - The Role of the Motor Cortex in Tremor Suppression in Parkinson's Disease
Leodori, Giorgio; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Fabbrini, Andrea; Costanzo, Matteo; Mancuso, Marco; Belvisi, Daniele; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: JOURNAL OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE (Amsterdam : b IOS Press) pp. 1957-1963 - issn: 1877-7171 - wos: WOS:000852648500016 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85137170562 (3)

11573/1601298 - 2022 - Motor Cortical Network Excitability in Parkinson's Disease
Leodori, Giorgio; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Guerra, Andrea; Fabbrini, Andrea; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Latorre, Anna; Paparella, Giulia; Belvisi, Daniele; Conte, Antonella; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Rothwell, John C.; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: MOVEMENT DISORDERS (-WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN, USA, NJ, 07030 -Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins:530 Walnut Street:Philadelphia, PA 19106:(800)638-3030, (301)223-2300, EMAIL: orders@lww.com, INTERNET: http://www.lww.com, Fax: (301)223-2320, (301)223-2320) pp. - - issn: 0885-3185 - wos: WOS:000740642500001 (19) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85122683781 (20)

11573/1660721 - 2022 - The effect of stimulation frequency on transcranial evoked potentials
Leodori, Giorgio; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Mancuso, Marco; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Baione, Viola; Costanzo, Matteo; Belvisi, Daniele; Conte, Antonella; Defazio, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE (Warszawa : "Versita") pp. 211-217 - issn: 2081-3856 - wos: WOS:000837049500001 (7) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85135803367 (9)

11573/1660555 - 2022 - Identifying transcranial magnetic stimulation induced EEG signatures of different neuronal elements in primary motor cortex
Ni, Zhen; Pajevic, Sinisa; Chen, Li; Leodori, Giorgio; Vial, Felipe; Avram, Alexandru V; Zhang, Yong; Mcgurrin, Patrick; Cohen, Leonardo G; Basser, Peter J; Hallett, Mark - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 42-52 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000830660100002 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85134482801 (2)

11573/1660551 - 2022 - Inter-Individual Variability in Motor Output Is Driven by Recruitment Gain in the Corticospinal Tract Rather Than Motor Threshold
Sarkar, Arkaprovo; Dipani, Alish; Leodori, Giorgio; Popa, Traian; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Hallett, Mark; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN SCIENCES (Basel: Molecular Diversity Preservation International) pp. 1401- - issn: 2076-3425 - wos: WOS:000872746000001 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85140608062 (2)

11573/1556797 - 2021 - Caffeine: Is it good or bad for neural plasticity?
Bologna, M.; Leodori, G. - 01m Editorial/Introduzione in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 1336-1338 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000653018000022 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85103933915 (2)

11573/1570894 - 2021 - Effect of botulinum toxin on non-motor symptoms in cervical dystonia
Costanzo, M.; Belvisi, D.; Berardelli, I.; Maraone, A.; Baione, V.; Ferrazzano, G.; Cutrona, C.; Leodori, G.; Pasquini, M.; Conte, A.; Fabbrini, G.; Defazio, G.; Berardelli, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: TOXINS (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International MDPI) pp. 647- - issn: 2072-6651 - wos: WOS:000699824300001 (9) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85115213571 (12)

11573/1555359 - 2021 - Salivary caffeine in Parkinson’s disease
Leodori, G.; De Bartolo, M. I.; Belvisi, D.; Ciogli, A.; Fabbrini, A.; Costanzo, M.; Manetto, S.; Conte, A.; Villani, C.; Fabbrini, G.; Berardelli, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS (London: Springer Nature London: Nature Publishing Group) pp. 9823- - issn: 2045-2322 - wos: WOS:000658740400009 (9) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85105556727 (10)

11573/1579386 - 2021 - Cortical mechanisms underlying variability in intermittent theta-burst stimulation-induced plasticity: A TMS-EEG study
Leodori, G.; Fabbrini, A.; De Bartolo, M. I.; Costanzo, M.; Asci, F.; Palma, V.; Belvisi, D.; Conte, A.; Berardelli, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 2519-2531 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000704914800024 (11) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85113362527 (14)

11573/1556189 - 2021 - The efficacy of rehabilitation in people with Guillain-Barrè syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Sulli, S.; Scala, L.; Berardi, A.; Conte, A.; Baione, V.; Belvisi, D.; Leodori, G.; Galeoto, G. - 01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
rivista: EXPERT REVIEW OF NEUROTHERAPEUTICS (-London, United Kingdom: Expert Reviews Ltd -London, United Kingdom: Future Drugs Limited) pp. 455-461 - issn: 1473-7175 - wos: WOS:000621272200001 (3) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85101773974 (5)

11573/1473610 - 2020 - Is somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold a biomarker of disease progression in multiple sclerosis?
Baione, V.; Belvisi, D.; Crisafulli, S. G.; Tartaglia, M.; Leodori, G.; Ferrazzano, G.; Conte, A. - 01f Lettera, Nota
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 2935-2936 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000595528200021 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85095439845 (2)

11573/1277208 - 2020 - Aberrant functional connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait: a within- and between-network analysis
Bharti, Komal; Suppa, Antonio; Pietracupa, Sara; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Giannì, Costanza; Leodori, Giorgio; Di Biasio, Francesca; Modugno, Nicola; Petsas, Nikolaos; Grillea, Giovanni; Zampogna, Alessandro; Berardelli, Alfredo; Pantano, Patrizia - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN IMAGING AND BEHAVIOR (New York, NY : Springer) pp. 1543-1554 - issn: 1931-7557 - wos: WOS:000579512100023 (28) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85063191272 (30)

11573/1472678 - 2020 - Functional alterations in visual networks underlie differences in the phenomenology of visual hallucinations in Lewy body disease
D'antonio, Fabrizia; Boccia, Maddalena; Di Vita, Antonella; Canevelli, Marco; Fabbrini, Andrea; Leodori, Giorgio; Caramia, Francesca; Ferracuti, Stefano; Guariglia, Cecilia; De Lena, Carlo; Aarsland, Dag; H. Ffytche., Dominic - 04c Atto di convegno in rivista
rivista: ALZHEIMER'S & DEMENTIA (New York : Elsevier, c2005-) pp. - - issn: 1552-5260 - wos: (0) - scopus: (0)
congresso: Alzheimer's Association International Conference (virtual event)

11573/1388981 - 2020 - Re-emergent Tremor in Parkinson's Disease: The Role of the Motor Cortex
Leodori, G.; Belvisi, D.; De Bartolo, M. I.; Fabbrini, A.; Costanzo, M.; Vial, F.; Conte, A.; Hallett, M.; Berardelli, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: MOVEMENT DISORDERS (-WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN, USA, NJ, 07030 -Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins:530 Walnut Street:Philadelphia, PA 19106:(800)638-3030, (301)223-2300, EMAIL: orders@lww.com, INTERNET: http://www.lww.com, Fax: (301)223-2320, (301)223-2320) pp. - - issn: 0885-3185 - wos: WOS:000541254900017 (23) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85081717317 (25)

11573/1447074 - 2020 - Investigating the effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation on primary somatosensory cortex
Manzo, N.; Guerra, A.; Giangrosso, M.; Belvisi, D.; Leodori, G.; Berardelli, A.; Conte, A. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS (London: Springer Nature London: Nature Publishing Group) pp. 17129- - issn: 2045-2322 - wos: WOS:000582693200002 (6) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85092517663 (7)

11573/1398960 - 2020 - Myoclonus: An electrophysiological diagnosis
Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.; Vial‐Undurraga, Felipe; Leodori, Giorgio; Gerpen, Ja; Hallett, Mark - 01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
rivista: MOVEMENT DISORDERS CLINICAL PRACTICE (Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2014-) pp. - - issn: 2330-1619 - wos: WOS:000540627200001 (18) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85087186310 (24)

11573/1474832 - 2020 - Measuring latency distribution of transcallosal fibers using transcranial magnetic stimulation
Ni, Z.; Leodori, G.; Vial, F.; Zhang, Y.; Avram, A. V.; Pajevic, S.; Basser, P. J.; Hallett, M. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN STIMULATION (Amsterdam, Oxford : Elsevier, 2008-) pp. 1453-1460 - issn: 1935-861X - wos: WOS:000573960600005 (12) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85089545519 (12)

11573/1398952 - 2020 - Measuring conduction velocity distributions in peripheral nerves using neurophysiological techniques
Ni, Zhen; Vial, Felipe; Avram, Alexandru V.; Leodori, Giorgio; Pajevic, Sinisa; Basser, Peter J.; Hallett, Mark - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 1581-1588 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000539415600020 (6) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85084586854 (6)

11573/1398958 - 2020 - The role of the inferior parietal lobule in writer’s cramp
Popa, Traian; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G; Bushnell, M C; Leodori, Giorgio; Vial-Undurraga, Felipe; Wu, Tianxia; Bradson, Megan; Parker, Jacob; Frangos, Eleni; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN (-Oxford: Oxford University Press -Oxford: Clarendon Press -London: Macmillan -London: Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1878-) pp. - - issn: 0006-8950 - wos: WOS:000541788700023 (15) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85086683004 (19)

11573/1351395 - 2019 - Rising solutions for secondary treatment failure in patients on chronic botulinum neurotoxin therapy
Leodori, G.; Suppa, A. - 01m Editorial/Introduzione in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 1031-1032 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000466778200021 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85063333791 (0)

11573/1351377 - 2019 - Intracortical Inhibition and Surround Inhibition in the Motor Cortex: A TMS-EEG Study
Leodori, Giorgio; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Conn, Hannah; Popa, Traian; Berardelli, Alfredo; Hallett, Mark - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE (Lausanne : EPFL : Frontiers Research Foundation, 2007-) pp. - - issn: 1662-453X - wos: WOS:000471273700001 (23) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85068517171 (24)

11573/1351388 - 2019 - A novel exaggerated “spino-bulbo-spinal like” reflex of lower brainstem origin
Merchant, Shabbir Hussain; Vial, Felipe; Leodori, Giorgio; Fahn, Stanley; Pullman, Seth L.; Hallett, Mark - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: PARKINSONISM & RELATED DISORDERS (Elsevier Science:Molenwarf 1, 1014 AG Amsterdam The Netherlands:011 31 20 4853597, EMAIL: p.j.bishop@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 31 20 4853249) pp. 34-38 - issn: 1353-8020 - wos: WOS:000468719900007 (3) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85054449540 (3)

11573/1398962 - 2019 - Erratum: Plasticity induced in the human spinal cord by focal muscle vibration (Front Neurol (2019) 9 (935) DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00935)
Rocchi, L.; Suppa, A.; Leodori, G.; Celletti, C.; Camerota, F.; Rothwell, J.; Berardelli, A. - 01b Commento, Erratum, Replica e simili
rivista: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY (Lausanne: Frontiers Research Foundation, 2010-) pp. 1170- - issn: 1664-2295 - wos: WOS:000455136900001 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85065393523 (0)

11573/1351381 - 2019 - Parietal conditioning enhances motor surround inhibition
Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Leodori, Giorgio; Popa, Traian; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Mandel, Alexandra; Shaft, Alexander; Kee, Jaron; Kashyap, Sarung; Khodorov, Gregg; Hallett, Mark - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: BRAIN STIMULATION (Amsterdam, Oxford : Elsevier, 2008-) pp. - - issn: 1935-861X - wos: WOS:000509471600032 (2) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85076850852 (3)

11573/1226544 - 2018 - Abnormal cerebellar connectivity patterns in patients with parkinson’s disease and freezing of gait
Bharti, Komal; Suppa, Antonio; Pietracupa, Sara; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Giannì, Costanza; Leodori, Giorgio; Di Biasio, Francesca; Modugno, Nicola; Petsas, Nikolaos; Grillea, Giovanni; Zampogna, Alessandro; Berardelli, Alfredo; Pantano, Patrizia - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: THE CEREBELLUM (New York: Springer London: Martin Dunitz Ltd, 2002-) pp. - - issn: 1473-4222 - wos: WOS:000468112900002 (45) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85055970074 (45)

11573/1020829 - 2018 - Freezing of gait in parkinson's disease. gray and white matter abnormalities
Pietracupa, Sara; Suppa, Antonio; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Gianni', Costanza; Grillea, Giovanni; Leodori, Giorgio; Modugno, Nicola; Di Biasio, Francesca; Zampogna, Alessandro; Colonnese, Claudio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Pantano, Patrizia - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY (Heidelberg Germany: Springer Verlag) pp. 1-11 - issn: 0340-5354 - wos: WOS:000419777000008 (48) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85033460833 (54)

11573/1225105 - 2018 - Plasticity induced in the human spinal cord by focal muscle vibration
Rocchi, Lorenzo; Suppa, Antonio; Leodori, Giorgio; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Rothwell, John; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY (Lausanne: Frontiers Research Foundation, 2010-) pp. - - issn: 1664-2295 - wos: WOS:000449092800001 (16) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85056278412 (14)

11573/1064594 - 2018 - L-DOPA and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: Objective assessment through a wearable wireless system
Suppa, Antonio; Kita, Ardian; Leodori, Giorgio; Zampogna, Alessandro; Nicolini, Ettore; Lorenzi, Paolo; Rao, Rosario; Irrera, Fernanda - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY (Lausanne: Frontiers Research Foundation, 2010-) pp. 1-14 - issn: 1664-2295 - wos: WOS:000407591300001 (57) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85027397242 (62)

11573/1017484 - 2017 - The third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold: focusing on the temporal processing of sensory input within primary somatosensory cortex
Leodori, Giorgio; Formica, Alessandra; Zhu, Xiaoying; Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Cruccu, Giorgio; Hallett, Mark; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Bethesda, MD,Usa: American Physiological Society) pp. 2311-2317-2317 - issn: 0022-3077 - wos: WOS:000412642900032 (17) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85030635516 (17)

11573/897759 - 2016 - Bradykinesia in early and advanced Parkinson's disease
Bologna, Matteo; Leodori, Giorgio; Stirpe, Paola; Paparella, Giulia; Colella, Donato; Belvisi, Daniele; Fasano, Alfonso; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES (Elsevier BV:PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam Netherlands:011 31 20 4853757, 011 31 20 4853642, 011 31 20 4853641, EMAIL: nlinfo-f@elsevier.nl, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.nl, Fax: 011 31 20 4853598) pp. 286-291 - issn: 0022-510X - wos: WOS:000384861000056 (56) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84984677993 (63)

11573/1455798 - 2016 - Effects of cerebellar theta-burst stimulation on arm and neck movement kinematics in patients with focal dystonia
Bologna, Matteo; Paparella, Giulia; Fabbrini, Andrea; Leodori, Giorgio; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Hallett, Mark; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 3472-3479 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000389510200009 (45) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84990062978 (47)

11573/884749 - 2016 - Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold in Parkinson's disease parallels disease severity and duration
Conte, Antonella; Leodori, Giorgio; Ferrazzano, Gina; De Bartolo, Maria Ilenia; Manzo, Nicoletta; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 2985-2989 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000381080400004 (27) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84989916314 (29)

11573/868910 - 2016 - Neutralizing Antibody and Botulinum Toxin Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Fabbri, Margherita; Leodori, Giorgio; Fernandes, Ricardo M.; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Marti, Maria Jose; Colosimo, Carlo; Ferreira, Joaquim J. - 01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
rivista: NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH (F P Graham Publishing Company:PO Box 370:Mountain Home, TN 37684:(423)282-4045, EMAIL: fpgrahamco@cs.com, Fax: (423)282-8198) pp. 105-117 - issn: 1029-8428 - wos: WOS:000367696000010 (70) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84953369797 (79)

11573/650594 - 2015 - Cerebellar continuous theta burst stimulation in essential tremor
Bologna, Matteo; Rocchi, L; Leodori, G; Paparella, G; Conte, Antonella; Kahn, N; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: THE CEREBELLUM (New York: Springer London: Martin Dunitz Ltd, 2002-) pp. 133-141 - issn: 1473-4222 - wos: WOS:000350897800008 (34) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84925484023 (38)

11573/779986 - 2015 - Somatosensory temporal discrimination in essential tremor and isolated head and voice tremors
Conte, Antonella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Manzo, Nicoletta; Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Tinazzi, Michele; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: MOVEMENT DISORDERS (-WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN, USA, NJ, 07030 -Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins:530 Walnut Street:Philadelphia, PA 19106:(800)638-3030, (301)223-2300, EMAIL: orders@lww.com, INTERNET: http://www.lww.com, Fax: (301)223-2320, (301)223-2320) pp. 822-827 - issn: 0885-3185 - wos: WOS:000354731500013 (30) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84929654379 (28)

11573/525857 - 2014 - Primary somatosensory cortical plasticity and tactile temporal discrimination in focal hand dystonia
Conte, Antonella; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Ferrazzano, Gina; Leodori, Giorgio; Bologna, Matteo; Li Voti, Pietro; Andrea, Nardella; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Elsevier Science Ireland Limited:PO Box 85, Limerick Ireland:011 353 61 709600, 011 353 61 61944, EMAIL: usinfo-f@elsevier.com, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, Fax: 011 353 61 709114) pp. 537-543 - issn: 1388-2457 - wos: WOS:000332399600016 (47) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84894334731 (49)

11573/540131 - 2014 - Cerebellar continuous theta-burst stimulation affects motor learning of voluntary arm movements in humans
Li Voti, Pietro; Conte, Antonella; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Bologna, Matteo; Nashaba, Khan; Leodori, Giorgio; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE (Blackwell Science Limited:PO Box 88, Oxford OX2 0NE United Kingdom:011 44 1865 776868, 011 44 1865 206038, EMAIL: journals.cs@blacksci.co.uk, INTERNET: http://www.blackwell-science.com, Fax: 011 44 1865 721205) pp. 124-131 - issn: 0953-816X - wos: WOS:000330972700012 (30) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84891631441 (33)

11573/515496 - 2013 - Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold may help to differentiate patients with multiple system atrophy from patients with Parkinson's disease
Rocchi, Lorenzo; Conte, Antonella; A., Nardella; Li Voti, Pietro; F., Di Biasio; Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins:530 Walnut Street:Philadelphia, PA 19106:(800)638-3030, (301)223-2300, EMAIL: orders@lww.com, INTERNET: http://www.lww.com, Fax: (301)223-2320, (301)223-2320) pp. 714-719 - issn: 1351-5101 - wos: WOS:000316258800024 (32) - scopus: 2-s2.0-84875050399 (33)

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