GABRIELE PROIETTI MATTIA

Dottore di ricerca

ciclo: XXXV


supervisore: Roberto Beraldi

Titolo della tesi: Cooperative Scheduling and Load Balancing techniques in Fog and Edge Computing

Fog and Edge Computing are two models that reached maturity in the last decade. Today, they are two solid concepts and plenty of literature tried to develop them. Also corroborated by the development of technologies, like for example 5G, they can now be considered de facto standards when building low and ultra-low latency applications, privacy-oriented solutions, industry 4.0 and smart city infrastructures. The common trait of Fog and Edge computing environments regards their inherent distributed and heterogeneous nature where the multiple (Fog or Edge) nodes are able to interact with each other with the essential purpose of pre-processing data gathered by the uncountable number of sensors to which they are connected to, even by running significant ML models and relying upon specific processors (TPU). However, nodes are often placed in a geographic domain, like a smart city, and the dynamic of the traffic during the day may cause some nodes to be overwhelmed by requests and others instead may become completely idle. To achieve the optimal usage of the system and also for guaranteeing the best possible QoS across all the users connected to the Fog or Edge nodes, load balancing and scheduling algorithms are needed, in particular, a reasonable solution is to enable nodes to cooperate. This capability represents the main objective of this thesis, which is the design of fully distributed algorithms and solutions whose purpose is the one of balancing the load across all the nodes, also by following, if possible, QoS requirements in terms of latency or imposing constraints in terms of power consumption when the nodes are powered by green energy sources. Unfortunately, when a central orchestrator is missing, a crucial element which makes the design of such algorithms difficult is that nodes need to know the state of the others in order to make the best possible scheduling decision. However, it is not possible to retrieve the state without introducing further latency during the service of the request. Furthermore, due to this unavoidable latency, the retrieved information about the state is always old and, as a consequence, the decision is always relying on imprecise data. In this thesis, the problem is circumvented in two main ways. The first one considers randomised algorithms which avoid probing all of the neighbour nodes in favour of at maximum two nodes picked at random. This is proven to bring an exponential improvement in performance with respect to the probe of a single node. The second approach, instead, considers Reinforcement Learning as a technique for inferring the state of the other nodes thanks to the reward received by the agents when requests are forwarded. Moreover, the thesis will also focus on the energy aspect of the Edge devices. In particular, it will be analysed a scenario of Green Edge Computing, where devices are powered only by Photovoltaic Panels and a scenario of mobile offloading, where it will be studied the trade-off, between energy and latency, which exists when intensive ML inference tasks are off-loaded to a Fog or an Edge server. Lastly, a final glance will be given to a series of infrastructural studies which will give the foundations for implementing the proposed algorithms on real devices, in particular Single Board Computers (SBCs). There will be presented a structural scheme of a testbed of Raspberry Pi boards and a fully-fledged framework called ``P2PFaaS'' which allows the implementation of load balancing and scheduling algorithms based on the Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) paradigm.

Produzione scientifica

11573/1670234 - 2023 - Lightweight and Energy-Aware Monocular Depth Estimation Models for IoT Embedded Devices: Challenges and Performances in Terrestrial and Underwater Scenarios
Papa, Lorenzo; Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Russo, Paolo; Amerini, Irene; Beraldi, Roberto - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: SENSORS (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2001-) pp. 2223- - issn: 1424-8220 - wos: WOS:000942409200001 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85149180106 (0)

11573/1686404 - 2023 - Lifespan and energy-oriented load balancing algorithms across sets of nodes in Green Edge Computing
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: IEEE Cloud Summit 2023 (Baltimore, MD, USA)
libro: 2023 IEEE Cloud Summit - (979-8-3503-2217-0)

11573/1678232 - 2023 - A Load Balancing Algorithm for Equalising Latency across Fog or Edge Computing Nodes
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Beraldi, Roberto - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SERVICES COMPUTING (Los Alamitos, CA, USA: Computer Society) pp. 1-12 - issn: 1939-1374 - wos: WOS:001085223500004 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85153382886 (1)

11573/1690801 - 2023 - A Study on Energy Efficiency in Edge-assisted VR Applications with Meta Quest 2 for Disaster Management
Romagnoli, Lorenzo; Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: The 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management, ICT-DM 2023 (Cosenza, Italy)
libro: 2023 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management (ICT-DM) - (979-8-3503-1951-4)

11573/1697441 - 2023 - A Double-Decision Reinforcement Learning Based Algorithm for Online Scheduling in Edge and Fog Computing
Tayel, Ahmed Fayez Moustafa; Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: 8th International Symposium on Algorithmic Aspects of Cloud Computing (Amsterdam; Olanda)
libro: Algorithmic Aspects of Cloud Computing - (978-3-031-49360-7; 978-3-031-49361-4)

11573/1629854 - 2022 - On the impact of stale information on distributed online load balancing protocols for edge computing
Beraldi, R.; Canali, C.; Lancellotti, R.; Mattia, G. P. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: COMPUTER NETWORKS (Elsevier BV:PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam Netherlands:011 31 20 4853757, 011 31 20 4853642, 011 31 20 4853641, EMAIL: nlinfo-f@elsevier.nl, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.nl, Fax: 011 31 20 4853598) pp. - - issn: 1389-1286 - wos: WOS:000797964500005 (0) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85128196583 (1)

11573/1363463 - 2022 - Power of random choices made efficient for fog computing
Beraldi, R.; Proietti Mattia, G. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING () pp. 1130-1141 - issn: 2168-7161 - wos: WOS:000808079500028 (7) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85078460382 (4)

11573/1662849 - 2022 - On off-grid green solar panel supplied edge computing
Beraldi, Roberto; Mattia, Gabriele Proietti - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: IEEE 19th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Smart Systems (MASS) (Denver; USA)
libro: 2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Smart Systems (MASS) - (978-1-6654-7180-0)

11573/1659051 - 2022 - Local and Remote Fog based Trade-offs for QOE in VR Applications by using CloudXR and Oculus Air Link
Maiorano, Gabriele; Mattia, Gabriele Proietti; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: International Conference on Edge Computing and Applications (ICECAA) (Tamilnadu, India)
libro: 2022 International Conference on Edge Computing and Applications (ICECAA) - (978-1-6654-8232-5)

11573/1631848 - 2022 - On real-time scheduling in Fog computing: A Reinforcement Learning algorithm with application to smart cities
Mattia, Gabriele Proietti; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: ALPACA 2022: First Workshop on Adaptive, Learning Pervasive Computing Applications (Pisa; Italy)
libro: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops and other Affiliated Events (PerCom Workshops) - (978-1-6654-1647-4)

11573/1662846 - 2022 - P2PFaaS: A framework for FaaS peer-to-peer scheduling and load balancing in Fog and Edge computing
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: SOFTWAREX ([Amsterdam] : Elsevier B.V.) pp. 101290- - issn: 2352-7110 - wos: WOS:000964056600001 (1) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85144575807 (3)

11573/1657436 - 2022 - A Latency-levelling Load Balancing Algorithm for Fog and Edge Computing
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Magnani, Marco; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: 25th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM’22) (Montreal; Canada)
libro: MSWiM '22: Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems on International Conference on Modeling Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems - (9781450394826)

11573/1514027 - 2021 - Smartphone-based colorimetric sensor application for measuring biochemical material concentration
Alawsi, Taif; Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Al-Bawi, Zainab; Beraldi, Roberto - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: SENSING AND BIO-SENSING RESEARCH (Amsterdam : Elsevier) pp. - - issn: 2214-1804 - wos: WOS:000656460300022 (22) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85102086712 (29)

11573/1567821 - 2021 - Towards Testbed as-a-Service: design and implementation of an unattended SoC cluster
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (Virtual, Online; Greece)
libro: 2021 International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) - (978-1-6654-1278-0)

11573/1582866 - 2021 - A study on real-time image processing applications with edge computing support for mobile devices
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: IEEE/ACM 25th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT 2021) (Valencia; Spain)
libro: 2021 IEEE/ACM 25th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT) - (978-1-6654-3326-6)

11573/1608867 - 2021 - Leveraging Reinforcement Learning for online scheduling of real-time tasks in the Edge/Fog-to-Cloud computing continuum
Proietti Mattia, Gabriele; Beraldi, Roberto - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA) (Virtual Conference)
libro: 2021 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA) - (978-1-6654-9550-9)

11573/1436024 - 2020 - Distributed load balancing for heterogeneous fog computing infrastructures in smart cities
Beraldi, R.; Canali, C.; Lancellotti, R.; Mattia, G. P. - 01a Articolo in rivista
rivista: PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING (Elsevier) pp. - - issn: 1574-1192 - wos: WOS:000569172900002 (25) - scopus: 2-s2.0-85088400093 (42)

11573/1472216 - 2020 - A Random Walk based Load Balancing Algorithm for Fog Computing
Beraldi, R.; Canali, C.; Lancellotti, R.; Mattia, G. P. - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: 5th International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing, FMEC 2020 (Paris; France)
libro: 2020 Fifth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC) - (978-1-7281-7216-3)

11573/1472224 - 2020 - Randomized Load Balancing under Loosely Correlated State Information in Fog Computing
Beraldi, R.; Canali, C.; Lancellotti, R.; Mattia, G. P. - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: 23rd ACM International Conference on Modelling, Analysis, and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, MSWiM 2020 (Virtual, Online; Spain)
libro: MSWiM 2020 - Proceedings of the 23rd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems - (9781450381178)

11573/1363471 - 2019 - A Randomized Low Latency Resource Sharing Algorithm for Fog Computing
Beraldi, R.; Proietti Mattia, G. - 04b Atto di convegno in volume
congresso: 23rd IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, DS-RT 2019 (Cosenza; Italy)
libro: 2019 IEEE/ACM 23rd International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT) - (978-1-7281-2923-5)

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